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東北地區玉米種植結構調整防范除草劑藥害風險技術指導意見

2020-12-10 09:05:21

  當前,東北地區(qu)即(ji)將進入春耕春播(bo)關鍵時期。為落(luo)實《農(nong)業(ye)部(bu)關于“鐮刀(dao)彎(wan)”地區(qu)玉米結構調整的指導意見(jian)》,有效(xiao)防范莠去津等長殘(can)效(xiao)除草(cao)劑對改種(zhong)作物藥害風險(xian),確保(bao)結構調整調得動、穩得住,農(nong)業(ye)部(bu)種(zhong)植業(ye)管理司會(hui)同全國農(nong)業(ye)技(ji)術(shu)推廣服務中心組織有關專家進行專題研究,提出以下技(ji)術(shu)指導意見(jian)。

  青飼料裹包機廠家告訴您:東北地區玉米種植結構調整防范除草劑藥害風險技術指導意見.jpg

  一(yi)、合理布(bu)(bu)局改(gai)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)。實施(shi)(shi)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植結構調整(zheng)的地區,應根據玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)田近年施(shi)(shi)用(yong)除(chu)(chu)草(cao)劑的品(pin)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)等情況,合理布(bu)(bu)局后(hou)(hou)(hou)茬(cha)改(gai)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)。一(yi)是(shi)(shi)連(lian)續(xu)(xu)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)莠(you)(you)去津(jin)(jin)及其(qi)復配(pei)制劑3年以上(shang)的玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)田塊(kuai),后(hou)(hou)(hou)茬(cha)宜調整(zheng)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植青(qing)(qing)貯(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)或(huo)鮮(xian)(xian)(xian)食(shi)(shi)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi);連(lian)續(xu)(xu)施(shi)(shi)用(yong)少于3年的,后(hou)(hou)(hou)茬(cha)可調整(zheng)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植青(qing)(qing)貯(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)、鮮(xian)(xian)(xian)食(shi)(shi)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)、高粱(liang)、黍子(zi)或(huo)糜子(zi);停用(yong)1年后(hou)(hou)(hou),方可逐步調整(zheng)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植其(qi)他作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)。二是(shi)(shi)前(qian)茬(cha)采用(yong)煙(yan)嘧磺(huang)隆(long)、硝磺(huang)草(cao)酮替代莠(you)(you)去津(jin)(jin)的田塊(kuai),后(hou)(hou)(hou)茬(cha)可調整(zheng)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植青(qing)(qing)貯(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)、鮮(xian)(xian)(xian)食(shi)(shi)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)、馬(ma)鈴薯、春小麥(mai)、大(da)豆、水稻、花(hua)生、向(xiang)日(ri)葵、雜糧(liang)、雜豆、蓖麻、油(you)菜、甜(tian)菜、亞麻、瓜類(lei)、蔬菜、果樹(shu)或(huo)飼草(cao)等多種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu);連(lian)續(xu)(xu)2年采用(yong)苯吡(bi)唑草(cao)酮、煙(yan)嘧磺(huang)隆(long)等與莠(you)(you)去津(jin)(jin)復配(pei),實施(shi)(shi)莠(you)(you)去津(jin)(jin)減量的玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)田,可調整(zheng)種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植除(chu)(chu)甜(tian)菜以外的上(shang)述(shu)各種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)。三(san)是(shi)(shi)前(qian)茬(cha)使用(yong)嗪草(cao)酮、乙草(cao)胺混用(yong)除(chu)(chu)草(cao)的田塊(kuai),后(hou)(hou)(hou)茬(cha)可種(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)植青(qing)(qing)貯(zhu)(zhu)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)、鮮(xian)(xian)(xian)食(shi)(shi)玉(yu)(yu)米(mi)、馬(ma)鈴薯、大(da)豆或(huo)花(hua)生等作(zuo)(zuo)物(wu)。

  打捆包膜一體機廠家告訴您:二、科學選用除草劑品種。擬實施玉米種植結構調整的地區,應根據當地草相、土壤、氣候條件,選用土壤殘留期短、不影響結構調整改種作物生長的除草劑品種,避免使用對結構調整改種作物有藥害風險的莠去津及其復配制劑。播后苗前土壤處理,應選用乙草胺、異丙甲草胺、異丙草胺、二甲戊靈等防除禾本科雜草,以及唑嘧磺草胺、異噁唑草酮、嗪草酮、特丁津等防除闊葉雜草。苗后噴施處理,應選用氯氟吡氧乙酸(異辛酯)、2,4-D(異辛酯)防除闊葉雜草和煙嘧磺隆、硝磺草酮、苯吡唑草酮防除禾本科雜草及闊葉雜草。同時,應根據土壤墑情和氣候條件選擇處理方式,并依據田間雜草種群組成,合理混用,擴大殺草譜。

東北地區玉米種植結構調整防范除草劑藥害風險技術指導意見


  三、推(tui)(tui)(tui)廣(guang)莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津減(jian)(jian)施(shi)(shi)(shi)技(ji)術。鑒于莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津防除(chu)玉米田(tian)雜草(cao)高效、廉價,短期內難以(yi)全(quan)面(mian)替代的實際,應(ying)推(tui)(tui)(tui)廣(guang)莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津減(jian)(jian)量(liang)(liang)施(shi)(shi)(shi)用技(ji)術,盡可能降低(di)對(dui)后(hou)(hou)茬改種作物藥害風險。壤(rang)(rang)土(tu)且墑情好(hao)的田(tian)塊,可采(cai)用莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津與(yu)乙(yi)草(cao)胺等混用,進行播后(hou)(hou)苗(miao)前土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)處理(li),莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津應(ying)嚴格(ge)控(kong)制在推(tui)(tui)(tui)薦(jian)劑(ji)量(liang)(liang)以(yi)內,避免超量(liang)(liang)使(shi)用;沙土(tu)或墑情差的田(tian)塊,不宜(yi)采(cai)用土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)處理(li)方式(shi)。苗(miao)后(hou)(hou)噴施(shi)(shi)(shi)處理(li),推(tui)(tui)(tui)行莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津與(yu)煙嘧磺(huang)隆、硝磺(huang)草(cao)酮(tong)或苯吡唑草(cao)酮(tong)等混用,并將莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津使(shi)用量(liang)(liang)控(kong)制在土(tu)壤(rang)(rang)處理(li)推(tui)(tui)(tui)薦(jian)劑(ji)量(liang)(liang)的50%以(yi)下。同時,添加甲基化植物油類等功能助劑(ji),進一步降低(di)莠(you)(you)去(qu)(qu)津使(shi)用量(liang)(liang);選用噴嘴標(biao)準、壓力恒(heng)定(ding)的施(shi)(shi)(shi)藥器(qi)械,保(bao)障均勻施(shi)(shi)(shi)藥,提高減(jian)(jian)量(liang)(liang)后(hou)(hou)除(chu)草(cao)效果(guo)。

  四、及時化解藥害風險。因地制宜采取增施有機肥、播種前充分灌溉等措施,加速土壤中莠去津殘留降解,或采用育苗移栽種植等方式,預防除草劑殘留對玉米種植結構調整改種作物的藥害風險。一旦田間出現輕度藥害,及時噴施蕓苔素內酯等植物生長調節劑,降低對改種作物生長的不利影響。

  農業(ye)部種植(zhi)業(ye)管(guan)理司提(ti)供


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